Effa L. Manley (March 27, 1897 - April 16, 1981) was an American sports executive who served as co-owner of the Negro League’s Newark Eagles from 1935 to 1946 and the sole owner of the team until 1948. A pioneer executive, she also acted as the Eagles’ business manager and following the 1946 death of her husband, Abe Manley, acted as treasurer of the Negro National League. Considered by many sports historians to be one of the most important women in baseball history, Manley’s many talents included marketing, often scheduling promotions that advanced the civil rights movement. At a time when nearly all Negro League players played brutal schedules, Manley also pursued better scheduling, pay, and accommodations for all players, with members of the Newark squad traveling in an air-conditioned bus – a luxury for the era. She was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2006, the first woman so honored.


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